Spine Degenerative Disease or Back Pain

Back pain is a prevalent symptom that around 80% of individuals encounter at least once during their lifetime. According to the WHO, lower back pain affected approximately 640 million cases in 2020, and it is estimated that the number of cases will increase to 840 million by 2050. Around 8% of the adult population is suffering from chronic back pain. Degenerative diseases (Disc Diseases, Spondylolisthesis), Trauma, Infection, Tumours, and Inflammatory Diseases (Arthritis/Ankylosing spondylitis) are the common causes of back pain. Spinal Degenerative Disease is the most common of all. Degenerative disease is characterized by the gradual loss of structure and function of the spine. The spine gradually stiffens, restricting mobility and flexibility.

In today’s era of busy sedentary lifestyles, food habits, smoking, obesity, and the absence of exercise in our schedules are risk factors for this disease in most patients. As the disease progresses, it causes compression of nerves that leads to Sciatica, Back pain, Limb Pain, Numbness, or Weakness and loss or changes of Bladder or Bowel functions infrequently.

Clinically, symptoms of pain are divided into Acute Pain, Subacute pain, or Chronic Pain. ACUTE pain has a symptom duration of less than 6 WEEKs. Most are nonspecific, with only 10-20% having an anatomical diagnosis, and 80-90% improve within 1 Month. SUBACUTE pain lasts more than 6 WEEKS to 3 MONTHS. In 10% of cases, pain persists beyond 6 weeks. CHRONIC Back Pain persists for more than 3 months, with only 5% experiencing pain beyond this duration. Structural abnormalities are present in up to 50% of cases.

For the diagnosis of the disease, radiological imaging like MRI, CT Scan, and X-ray will be helpful. Treatment includes Medicines, Nerve Root blocks, and Physiotherapy, which one the mainstay of therapy in the majority of patients. If medical management fails, then surgery can be of help in selected patients. In today's era of Endoscopic Spine Surgery and Minimal invasive Spine Surgeries, the outcome of spine surgery has changed in the patient's favor, with advantages of small incision, least tissue damage, and less hospital stay.

Dr. Gaurang Vaghani 

MS, MCh (Neurosurgery) 

Fellow, Endovascular Neurosurgery 

HOD-Endovascular Neuro & Spine Surgery Department.


Dr Hard Vasavada 

M.S. (Gen. Surgery), M.Ch. (Neurosurgery) 

Consultant Neuro & Spine Surgeon 


Dr. Mayank Vekariya

MBBS, M.S. (Gen. Surgery), DNB (Neurosurgery)

Consultant Neuro & Spine Surgeon